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If you would be a real seeker after truth, you must at least once in your life doubt, as far as possible, all things.

René DesCartes
Discours de la Méthode (1637)

Welcome to ClassicalMatter.org

Classical Matter is a project devoted to science education. It is intended as a resource for students, educators, and others who are curious about our universe. The general purpose is to de-mystify science, offer sensible explanations of natural phenomena, refute popular myths, and promote evidence-based reasoning. Special emphasis is on the use of classical physical models and methods to explain properties of matter which are elsewhere deemed to be 'non-classical' , or counterintuitive. Topics include special and general relativity, spin 1/2 wave functions, and parity conservation. If you want to truly understand how modern physics relates to classical physics, then select  Contents  to see Resources and Links. 

For publications, visit VerumVersa.com.

Recent developments are:

The Wave Basis of Special Relativity, by Robert A. Close (published by Verum Versa)

- An explanation of WHY special relativity works, not just how it works.

Spin Angular Momentum and the Dirac Equation (EJTP 12, No. 33 (2015) 43–60)

(Erratta: the last two terms of Eq. 39 should have indices swapped, and spin is the total time derivative of the vector potential Q)

- A unified explanation of classical and quantum angular momentum, including a proposed “equation of everything”:

Is there an (a)ether?

There is a weighty argument to be adduced in favour of the ether hypothesis. To deny the ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever. The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view.

Albert Einstein 1920

It is necessary to set up an action principle and to get a Hamiltonian formulation of the equations suitable for quantization purposes, and for this the aether velocity is required.

Paul Dirac 1952

A space with torsion and curvature can be generated from a Minkowski space via singular coordinate transformations and is completely equivalent to a crystal which has undergone plastic deformation being filled with dislocations and disclinations.

Hagan Kleinert 1989

Classical Matter Logo: Did you know that Einstein's famous mass-energy formula  E=mc2 is actually a special case of the Pythagorean Theorem? Einstein's 'mass' is actually the rest mass m0 times a factor γ  (gamma) which represents the ratio between the hypotenuse and the third side of a right triangle. The hypotenuse is the speed of light (c), the second side is particle velocity (v), and the third side is c/γ =(c2-v2)1/2. The equation can also be written as: 


where p=γ m0v is the particle momentum and E is the energy. According to classical physics it can be written in terms of wave variables as:

with angular frequency ω and wave number k representing wave propagation, and the mass term represents oscillation without propagation. These equalities are also correct:



Contact Information

If you would like to add an educational resource or link, comment on existing resources or links, or sponsor this site, please contact Robert Close at robert.close@classicalmatter.org.

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Created: February 27, 2006;  Last updated: Jan 8, 2015

Copyright © 2006-2015   Robert A. Close